Civilizations of the world: Islamic
Historians believe that Islamic civilization originated in Mecca and Medina at the start of the 7th century CE. Islamic civilization can be noted as an amalgam of several cultures and a central element of the Islamic era is the Islamic religion. The civilization is believed to have started by 610 CE and came to an end by the fall of the Ottoman Empire in 1924.
The civilization was completely based on Islamic faith, values, and principles.
Transmission of culture was poetry and narratives. Civilization did see growth and is considered as one of the prominent civilizations till date.
Following are considered as the pillars of Islamic civilization:
- Profession of Faith (shahada)
- Prayer (salat)
- Alms (zakat)
- Fasting (sawm)
- Pilgrimage (hajj)
During the civilization period, religion was spread through military conquest, pilgrimage, and missionaries which ultimately led to the rise of Islamic states.
Dams, reservoirs, and aqueducts were constructed throughout the Islamic Empire as early as the tenth century, they also perfected the technique of the water wheel which is celebrated as an achievement of this civilization.
Mecca being connected to various global trade routes and the Islamic military conquering numerous territories were among the top reasons for the quick spread of religion and prosperity of the civilization.
Architecture also did witness considerable growth in this era, Islamic architecture mainly comprised of building styles associated with the religion. Elements like cylindrical minarets, muqarnas, arabesque, multifoil were used extensively in the design and construction. Mosque, tomb, palace, and fort were the principal architectural structure of the period.
Islamic architecture has gained great popularity across the globe and the following are few examples of structures designed and constructed with the Islamic style of architecture.
- Taj Mahal
- The Alhambra
- The Friday Mosque, Esfahan
- The Dome of the Rock
- Great Mosque of Samarra
- The Citadel of Aleppo
- Great Mosque of Córdoba
- Suleymaniye Mosque complex, Istanbul
Islamic art and architecture were influenced by Greek, Roman, early Christian, and Byzantine art styles, as well as the Sassanian art of pre-Islamic Persia.