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Climate-responsive architecture: Composite climate

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The composite climatic condition is a mix of hot and dry, hot and humid and cold climates. Their characteristics change from season to season alternating between long hot, dry periods to shorter periods of concentrated rainfall & high humidity. India being a tropical country, most of the climate responsive design would focus on factors pertaining the coolness.

In this blog, we will be discussing in detail the climate-responsive architecture in the cold and dry climate.

The practice of designing buildings and structures by utilizing the data of the region's weather patterns and accounts for factors like seasonality, the intensity of the sun, wind, rainfall, and humidity.

The goal of the architecture is to create a comfortable interior while reducing the building's reliance on artificial energy and to control the environmental harm caused during the construction process.

Below mentioned are the characteristics of composite climate:




Day time - 32 to 45°C

Night time - 27 to 32°C


Day time - 10 to 25°C

Night time - 4 to 10°C

Also receives strong monsoon winds from the south-east and north-east.

Solar Radiation:

Extremely high in summer

Low in winter

Places experiencing composite climate in India are:

- New Delhi

- Allahabad

- Kanpur

Essential design criteria for composite climate are:

- Decrease exposed surface area

- Increase thermal resistance ( Roof and wall insulation)

- Increase thermal capacity ( Thicker walls)

- Increase Buffer space ( Include balconies )

- Increase shading

- Include courtyards

- Make use of ventilation and exhausts.

- Buildings should be grouped in such a way that they can take the privilege of breezes or any air movement

- Roofs and external walls should be constructed of solid masonry or concrete to have a 9-12 hour lag in heat transmission.

- Roof ponds are beneficial

As a part of the climate-responsive architecture, the aim of the architect will be to design and construct buildings capable enough to trap heat in the winter and restrict heat in summer. Since the composite climate is a mix of features, the architecture of the area is also relatively complex as the design needs to satisfy conditions for mixed climatic affairs.

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