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Climate-responsive Architecture: Hot and Humid climate.


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The practice of designing buildings and structures by utilizing the data of the region's weather patterns and accounts for factors like seasonality, the intensity of the sun, wind, rainfall, and humidity.


A climate-responsive building design reflects the weather conditions in the precise area where the building is constructed. This design practice is centered on the primary idea of creating buildings. The major goal of climate-responsive architecture is to create a comfortable interior while reducing the building's reliance on artificial energy.


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In this blog, we will be discussing the climate-responsive architecture of hot and humid climates.


Since climate has effects on man, surroundings, and architecture, it is important to create a thermal comfort design.


Hot and humid climates are pointed out with extra moisture in which solar heat received is sufficient to evaporate all the moisture occurring in the form of precipitation.


Characteristics of hot and humid climate are as follows:


- Temperature:

Maximum temperature - 27°C - 32°C

Minimum temperature - 21°C - 27°C in summers

In winters, little seasonal variations as both annual and diurnal ranges are very narrow.


- Humidity

Around 75% (mostly) and varies from 55% to 100%


- Precipitation

2000 to 5000mm of rainfall


-Wind

Usually low wind velocities

Occasionally strong winds with high torrential rains.


- Solar Radiation

Intensity high during summers and moderate during winters.


Places experiencing hot and humid climate in India are mentioned below:


- Goa

- Mumbai

- Vishakapatnam

- Thiruvananthapuram

- Chennai

- Kolkata

- Puri

- Tripura

- Kozhikode

- Gulf of Kutchh


It is very much important to design buildings with regard to the climate experienced dominantly in that particular region. There are different types of basic design elements used according to the climatic condition, here we will see the suitable design elements for hot and humid climates.


- Detailing should be done to promote shading.

- Large buildings should ideally face north and south.

- Double walls with insulation work quite well.

- Include maximum ventilation and windows in the design.

- The size of windows in the east and west should be smaller so as to reduce the heat gain.


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- Flat roof is preferred as it acts as a good reflector in re-radiating the heat efficiently.

- It is better for the roof to be made of solid materials and painted white.

- Including internal courtyards are effective as it supports cross-ventilation and internal cooling.

- Inlets to be provided at lower levels and outlets at a higher level as they serve to vent the hot air.

- Suitable radiation barriers in the form of canopies and long verandahs should be provided on the west side of the building.

- Increase greenery in the building.

- Try using eco-friendly products as it has a great impact.